**Q.1. What do you mean by electric network and electric circuit? **

**Answer:** An electric network is any possible interconnection of electric circuit elements (e.g. R, L, C) or branches. An electric circuit is a closed energized network. A network is not necessarily a circuit example T network.

**Q.2. Define current, voltage and power.**

** Answer:** The time rate of flow of electric charge across a cross-sectional boundary is termed as current.

Voltage is defined as work done in moving a unit positive charge once around the closed path.

The instantaneous power delivered to circuit elements is the product of the instantaneous value of voltage and current of the element. In terms of energy, power is defined as “The time rate of change of energy is called power”.

**Q.3. What is self-inductance (L)? **

**Answer:** The property of coil due to which it opposes any increase or decrease of current or flux through it is called self-inductance.

**Q.4. What is mutual-inductance (M)? **

**Answer:** Mutual-inductance is the property of two coil because of which each opposes any change in the current flowing through the other by developing an induced emf.

** Q.5. What are lumped network? **

**Answer:** A network in which physically separate resistors, capacitors and inductors can be represented.

**Q.6. What are distributed network?**

** Answer:** A network in which resistors, capacitors and inductors cannot be electrically separable and isolated as individual elements. A transmission line has distributed resistor, inductor and capacitor which are not isolated from the network.

**Q.7. What is the difference between the unilateral and bilateral network?**

** Answer:** A unilateral network is one whose elements follow different laws relating to voltage and current for different direction of voltage and current polarities. For example, vacuum tubes, crystal and metal rectifiers are unilateral elements.

A bilateral network is defined as those whose elements can transmit well in either direction. For example, elements made of high conductivity material like iron core conductor is bilateral elements.

** Q.8. What are linear networks?**

** Answer:** A linear network is one for which the principle of superposition holds. A circuit element is linear if the relation between voltage and current involves a constant coefficient.

Therefore, it is concluded that a linear network must be bilateral but a bilateral network is not necessarily linear. For example, an iron core conductor is bilateral but it is non linear.

**Q.9. What is a current source? **

**Answer:** A generator which maintains its output current independent of the voltage across its terminals. It is indicated by a circle enclosing an arrow for reference current direction. An ideal current source has infinite internal resistance.

**Q.10. What is a voltage source? **

**Answer:** A generator which maintains its value of potential independent of the output current. An AC source is indicated by a circle enclosing a wavy line. An ideal voltage source has zero internal resistance.

**Q.11. What should be the internal resistance of an ideal voltmeter and ammeter?**

** Answer:** Ideally the internal resistance of a voltmeter should be infinite and ideally the internal resistance of an ammeter should be zero.

**Q.12. State Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL). **

**Answer:** It is based on conservation of charge. It states that, “The algebraic sum of currents at any node of a circuit is zero”.

**Q.13. State Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL). **

**Answer:** It is based on conservation of energy. It states that, “The algebraic sum of voltages in any closed path of network that is traversed in any single direction is zero”.

**Q.14. Explain the switching action of an inductor?**

** Answer:** The current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously. If an energy source is suddenly connected to an inductor then it will not cause current to flow initially. Thus inductor acts as open circuit for the new applied source at the instant of switching.

If a current of vale I_{O } flows in the inductor at the instant switching takes place, that current will continue to flow. For the initial instant, the inductor may be considered as a current source of current I_{O}.

** Q.15. Explain the switching action of a capacitor? **

**Answer:** The voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously. Since, we have V=q/c, hence zero charge corresponds to zero voltage. Thus for a suddenly applied energy source, voltage across capacitor is initially zero i.e. equivalent to a short circuit.

Hence on connecting an uncharged capacitor to an energy source, a current flows instantaneously. But with an initial charge in the system, the capacitor is equivalent to a voltage source of vale V_{O }= q_{o }/c, where q_{o } the initial charge.

**Q.16. State clearly the Thevenin’s theorem. **

**Answer:** This theorem states that a linear, bilateral network consisting of active and passive elements can be replaced by a voltage source connected in series with impedance. The value of voltage source is equal to the open circuited voltage seen across the terminals and the impedance is equal to the impedance seen across the open circuited terminals with all sources replaced by their internal impedances.

**Q.17. Explain the usefulness of Thevenin’s theorem in linear network? **

**Answer:** Thevenin’s theorem is very useful in linear network analysis because using Thevenin’s theorem a large part of network, often a complicated and uninteresting part, can be replaced by a very simple equivalent which enables us to make rapid calculations.

It is very useful when it is desired to determine the current through or voltage across any one element in a network instead of going through the lengthy method of soling the network.

**Q.18. State clearly the superposition theorem? **

**Answer:** This theorem states that the voltage across or current through any element due to multiple sources present in a linear network is equal to the algebraic sum of voltage across or current through that element due to individual source with all other sources replaced by their internal impedances.

** Q.19. Explain the usefulness of superposition theorem in linear network?**

** Answer:** Superposition theorem is very useful in linear network analysis because a complex network can be solved easily by breaking it in simpler networks and using superposition theorem.

This theorem is very useful to calculate the voltage and current when more than one active source is present in the network.

**Q.20. State Tellegen’s theorem and its application. **

**Answer:** It states that for any given time, the sum and power delivered to each branch of any electric network is zero. In other words, the summation of instantaneous power or summation of complex power of sinusoidal sources in a electrical network is zero.

Tellegen’s theorem is applicable for any lumped network having elements which are linear or non-linear, active or passive, time-varying or time-invariant.

** Q.21. What is Reciprocity theorem? **

**Answer:** This theorem states that the current in branch X due to voltage source in branch Y of a linear bilateral network is same as the current in branch Y when the same voltage source is connected in branch X of the network.

- Only one source should be present in the network.
- Initial condition must be zero.
- Network must be time invariant.
- Dependent source are not permitted.

**Q.22. State Norton’s Theorem. **

**Answer:** It states that, any two terminals of a network containing linear passive and active elements may be replaced by an equivalent current source I_{N }in parallel with a resistance R_{N }where I_{N }is the current flowing through a short circuit placed across the terminals and R_{N }is the equivalent resistance of the network as seen from the two terminals with all the independent sources suppressed.

**Q.23. State Millman’s Theorem.**

** Answer:** This theorem states that, any number of current sources in parallel may be replaced by a single current source, whose current is the algebraic sum of individual source currents and source resistance is the parallel combination of individual source resistance.

**Q.24. What is the condition for maximum power transfer to take place? **

**Answer:** For maximum power transfer to take place the resistance of the load should be equal to the source resistance and the reactance of the load should be equal to that of source in magnitude but opposite in sign. It means, if load is capacitive then source is inductive and vice-versa.

**Q.25. Where the study of resonance is very useful? **

**Answer:** The study of resonance is very useful in the area of communication particularly. For example, the ability of a radio receiver to select a certain frequency transmitted by a station and to eliminate frequencies from other stations is based on the principle of resonance.

**Q.26. What is passive network? **

**Answer:** A network containing circuit elements without any energy source is called as passive network.

**Q.27. What is active network? **

**Answer:** A network containing energy source together with other circuit elements is called active network.

**Q.28. What is the use of superposition theorem? **

**Answer:** This theorem is used in order to check whether a given element is linear or non-linear.

**Q.29. For which network, the superposition theorem is not applicable?**

** Answer:** Superposition theorem is not applicable to the network containing unilateral elements and non linear elements.

**Q.30. On which law Tellegan’s theorem is based? **

**Answer:** Tellegan’s theorem works based on the principle of law of conservation of energy.

** Q.31. What is transient response? **

**Answer:** Transients are present in circuit, when circuit is subjected to any changes either by changing source magnitude or by changing any circuit elements provided circuit should consists of any energy storage elements. Transient response depends only on circuit components and their layout that is on system not on input and output.

**Q.32. Is it possible to obtain transient free response in RLC circuit?**

** Answer:** In RLC circuit it is not possible to obtain transient free response, since circuit is having two independent energy storage elements Land C.

** Q.33. What is Resonance? **

**Answer:** Resonance is the condition when the voltage across a circuit becomes in phase with the current supplied to the circuit. At resonance, the circuit behaves like a resistive circuit.

** Q.34. What is power factor? **

**Answer:** It is the cosine of the angle between the voltage and current in any AC circuit. For a resistive circuit power factor is unity. For a capacitive circuit power factor is leading (i.e. current leads the voltage) and for an inductive circuit power factor is lagging (i.e. current lags the voltage).

**Q.35. What will be the power factor of the circuit at resonance? **

**Answer:** At resonance, the circuit behaves like a resistive circuit, so the power factor of the circuit at resonance is unity.

**Q.36. What is the Q factor or quality factor? **

**Answer:** The ratio of resonant frequency to the bandwidth is an indication of the degree of selectivity of the circuit. This is known as quality factor (Q).

** Q.37. What will be the effect of Quality factor on bandwidth? **

**Answer:** A higher value of Quality factor results in a smaller bandwidth and a lower value of Quality factor cause a larger bandwidth.

**Q.38. What is the difference between Apparent power and Reactive power? **

**Answer**: Apparent Power- The product VI is called the apparent power and it is usually indicated by the symbol ‘S’. It is expressed in VA.

Reactive Power- The product of rms value of current and voltage and sine of the angle between them is called reactive power. It is denoted by ‘Q’ and is expressed in VAR.

**Q.39. What is Power Triangle? **

**Answer:** The equations associated with the average, apparent and reactive power can be developed geometrically on a right triangle called the power triangle.

**Q.40. What is the use of Hybrid (h) parameter? **

**Answer:** Hybrid parameters are used in constructing models for transistors.

** Q.41. What is image impedance of the network? **

**Answer:** If two impedance Z_{i1} and Z_{i2} are such that Zi1 is driving point impedance at port 1 with Z_{i2 }connected to port 2 and Z_{i2} is driving point impedance at port 2 with Z_{i1 }connected to port 1 then Z_{i1} and Z_{i2} are called image impedance of the network.

**Q.42. What is magnetic coupling?**

** Answer:** When a portion of magnetic flux established by one circuit interlinks with the second circuit, the two circuits are said to be coupled magnetically and energy may be transferred from one circuit to other through the medium of magnetic flux which is common to both.

**Q.43. Define bandwidth of series RLC circuit.**

** Answer:** The bandwidth of a series RLC circuit is defined as the range of frequency for which the power delivered to the resistance is greater than or equal to half the power delivered at resonance.

**Q.44. What are the methods of realization of reactance functions?**

** Answer:** Any reactance function can be realized in two forms-

- Cauer form or ladder form.
- Foster form.

** Q.45. Define “Tree” of a connected graph? **

**Answer:** A tree is a connected sub-graph of a connected graph containing all the nodes of the graph but containing no loops.

A “Tree” is a very important concept in linear graph theory which is a set of branches with every node connected to every other node (directly or in directly) such that removal of any single branch destroys this property.

**Q.46.How does “tree” aid in network analysis?**

** Answer:** The tree is helpful in finding the fundamental cut set matrix which gives the branch voltage and branch current of each branch on solving. The tree is also helpful in finding the rank of a graph.

** Q.47. What are the properties of a tree? **

**Answer**: The properties of a tree are as follows-

- There should be only one single path between the two nodes of the tree.
- There should not be any closed path.
- Tree contains all the nodes of the graph.
- The number of branches in the tree = (n-1)
- Rank of the tree = (n-1) = rank of the graph.

**Q.48. What is twig? **

**Answer:** Branches of the tree are called twig, it is also called edge.

**Q.49. What is co-tree and links? **

**Answer:** Remaining part of a graph after removal of twigs is called co-tree. It is collection of rings. Links are branches removed from the graph to make a tree.

** Q.50. What is fundamental cut set matrix? **

**Answer:** Fundamental cut set matrix is a group of branch containing only one twig and the minimum number of links. Fundamental cut set matrix can be used to write KCL equations for the given network.